Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Shamans view health and illness from a different perspective compared to the conventional medical perception: shamanic views associate energetic loss and spiritual connection or disconnection with certain types of diseases (Lawson, 2016). For example, illnesses such as anxiety, depression, and other psychological disorders are spiritually connectedand require spiritual intervention rather than conventional medicinal treatments. Further, similar signs and symptoms are not caused by the same energetic loss, and therefore, each requires a different spiritual approach.
Shamans approach the healing process through prayers because they believe diseases are caused by various etiological factors, including malevolent agents and evil spirits. Hence, rituals performed by special persons are the remedies for most ailments, although they might include herbalists to prescribe traditional medicines. Additionally, the shamanic view involves prevention measures such as burnt incense to keep away evil spirits, black magic, and other disease-causing agents (Penkala-Gawęcka, 2017). Similar to the conventional medication processes, the shamanic approach recognizes a specialized person, a healer who performs the rituals by invoking the ancestral spirits and prescribing herbal medicine, while the prevention measures are carried out by everyone, especially the parents and elders, to protect their children and families.
Nurses interact with various patients whose perspective toward life and the afterlife varies. In most cases, terminally ill patients or patients with life-threatening conditions ask questions about the meaning of life and the nature of spirituality (Goldstein, 2019). Nurses with shamanic perspectives easily and deeply engage the patients in religious philosophies and spirituality. Indeed, the shamanic approach to health and illness adds to holistic nursing practices.
Natural disasters cause negative consequences on communities and states as they wreak havoc and cause loss of lives and property. Tornadoes are common examples of disasters that have resulted in devastating effects on communities. The catastrophes, also, result in situations of competing needs and claims from the affected societies. Distributive justice ensures the distribution of benefits and equal allocation of burdens in situations of scarce resources.
In 2021, a series of tornadoes ripped across six states killing hundreds of individuals. The states of Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, Illinois, and Arkansas were greatly affected by the disaster. Most casualties were reported in Kentucky, with at least 74 people dead, which was recorded ad the worst event in the state’s history (Cohen, 2021). Most homes were reduced to nothing resulting in displacements of most families. The impact affected life and livelihoods causing pressure on nearby accommodations as people moved to find shelter.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was tasked with implementing initiatives that reduce barriers to accessing and delivering equitable outcomes for all survivors. The government agency commits to serving all individuals regardless of differences in their backgrounds and existing language barriers (FEMA, 2021). The ethical principle of justice, distributive justice, aims to offer relief assistance in all situations to all affected societies (James and Gilliland, 2016). Personnel who have experience working with Hispanic and Latino communities were assigned to reduce the potential ethnic barriers.